Answer by Jason Yeaman:
What are the relationships between CPU performance and clock frequency, density of IC, instruction set architecture, pipeline structure, pipelinization, and vectorization respectively?
CPU performance and clock freq are not directly proportional on the upward scale in today’s processors. There are so many mitigating design factors that are performance multipliers.. A fast CPU clock that has a low ratio of latched nits per cycle results is a whole lot of unprocessed data in a very short amount of time. Wider busses, moving logic functions from the PCB to the processor core, core multipliers, smaller interconnects and smaller instruction length seem to be where it’s at.
Ic density. From a manufacturing standpoint, obviously the ingot core compression density makes for a faster, more stable chip. Interconnects can be etched at a higher rate of stability. This reduces the heat generation and allows the clck to be multiplied at a higher frequency.
Instruction set architecture:
RISC. It seems arm is on the warpath. With so many ways to integrate so many subsystems onto a chip system, hardware and electrical engineers now design at a level that allows them to be exposed to microcontroller core, rtos and application processor cores in the same environment.